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The smoothie for reduced risk and treatment of Osteoporosis
Yield: 2 serving (about 8 ounce each)
1 1/4 cups plums
1/4 cup Pomegranate
1 cup of coconut milk or coconut water
1. Place tall ingredients in a blender and puree about 1 minute
2. Blend on high speed about 1 minute or until the mixture is thick and the ice is well crushed.
3. Serve immediately
The finding of a natural source for reduced risk and treatment of osteoporosis has encountered many obstacles, many ingredients showed initially the promising result in animal studies have not produced same potentials in either large sample size and mutli centers human trials.
Osteoporosis is condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. maintaining the adequate levels of vitamin D and calcium was found to associate to reduced risk and development of the disease, epidemiologically.
Some research suggested that osteoporosis may also be caused by over expression of oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes(1) probably due to aging induced hormones deficiency.
Recent studies insisted that beside maintaining the right levels of Vitamin D and calcium, some natural sources such as plum(4), Pomegranate Peel(5) and coconut milk(8) have been found to process the pharmaceutical values for reduced risk and treatment of osteoporosis.
Plum is a genus of Prunus, containing over 15 species, relatives of the peach, nectarine and almond, belonging to family Rosaceae and native to northern Asia, Europe, North America and Africa's northwest coast, cultivated all over the globe for commercial purpose as foods and alcoholic drink.
Methanol extract from fruits of plum tree, showed potent peroxyl radical-scavenging activities and exhibited anti-osteoporosis activity through suppressing the nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells in related to bone and calcium metabolism and the pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases(2).
According ot the Korea University, the fruits of Prunus mume also significantly stimulated the differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells(an osteoblast precursor cell line ) to increase collagen synthesis or mineralization functions of osteoblasts(3).
Furthermore, According to Dr. Shen CL and colleagues at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, said," dried plum have a pronounced effect on bone and chronic consumption of dried plum increased bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength"(4).
Pomegranates is a fruit-bearing small tree, genus Punica, belongings to family Lythraceae, native to Iran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time.
Pomegranate peel has drawn the attention in scientist community due to its powerful antioxidants involved in some medicinal activities. In ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, intake of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia and significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density(5).
In deed, according to the study of Dr. Spilmont M and colleagues, all pomegranate parts, including Pomegranate seed oil (PSO)(7) are effective in preventing the development of bone loss probably through inhibited pro-inflammatory factors expression while stimulating anti-inflammatory ones(7) and improved oxidative status(6).
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family).found mostly in the coast line in the tropical region may also be beneficiary for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis(8).
Dr. Zil Hayatullina and the research team at the, in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model, exhibited the significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while lowering trabecular separation, by maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient model(9).
The natural pure oil from coconut, according to the Payap University, also inhibited the expression of pro inflammatory cytokins and up expression of anti inflammatory and analgesic activities(10) may also reduce risk and alleviate symptoms of osteoporosis, a mild chronic inflammatory disease(11).
Taking altogether, People who are at increased risk of Osteoporosis due to family history, gene mutation,....should drink at least one serving daily and people with Osteoporosis should drink the smoothie as much as they can, depending to digestive and liver toleration.
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(1) Time and dose-dependent effects of Labisia pumila on bone oxidative status of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model by Effendy NM1, Shuid AN2.(PubMed)
(2) Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-osteoporosis activities of chemical constituents of the fruits of Prunus mume by Yan XT1, Lee SH2, Li W1, Sun YN1, Yang SY1, Jang HD3, Kim YH4.(PubMed)
(3) Identification and biological evaluation of flavonoids from the fruits of Prunus mume by Yan XT1, Li W1, Sun YN1, Yang SY1, Lee SH2, Chen JB3, Jang HD4, Kim YH5.(PubMed)
(4) Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection by Shen CL1, von Bergen V, Chyu MC, Jenkins MR, Mo H, Chen CH, Kwun IS.(PubMed)
(5) Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro by Spilmont M1,2,3, Léotoing L4,5, Davicco MJ6,7, Lebecque P8,9, Miot-Noirault E10, Pilet P11, Rios L12, Wittrant Y13,14, Coxam V15,16.(PubMed)
(6) Pomegranate and its derivatives can improve bone health through decreased inflammation and oxidative stress in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis by Spilmont M, Léotoing L, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Mercier S, Miot-Noirault E, Pilet P, Rios L, Wittrant Y, Coxam V.(PubMed)
(7) Pomegranate seed oil prevents bone loss in a mice model of osteoporosis, through osteoblastic stimulation, osteoclastic inhibition and decreased inflammatory status by Spilmont M1, Léotoing L, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Mercier S, Miot-Noirault E, Pilet P, Rios L, Wittrant Y, Coxam V.(PubMed)
(8) Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review by Lima EB1, Sousa CN1, Meneses LN1, Ximenes NC1, Santos Júnior MA1, Vasconcelos GS1, Lima NB2, Patrocínio MC2, Macedo D1, Vasconcelos SM1.(PubMed)
(9) Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model by Hayatullina Z1, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN(PubMed)
(10) Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil by Intahphuak S1, Khonsung P, Panthong A.(PubMed)
(11) Osteoporosis, inflammation and ageing by Ginaldi L1, Di Benedetto MC, De Martinis M.(PubMed)