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The smoothie for reduced risk and treatment of Anemia (β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease)
Yield: 2 serving (about 8 ounce each)
1 1/2 cups papaya
1 cup of rice milk
1. Place all ingredients in a blender and puree about 1 minute
2. Blend on high speed about 1 minute or until the mixture is thick and the ice is well crushed. Add more green tea drink if needed
3. Serve immediately
The finding the natural ingredients for treatment of anemia is considered as a dream of many scientist to replace the long usage adverse effect of conventional medicine to other organs in the body. Unfortunately, many compounds found effective in initial studying failed to confirm the potential in large sample size and multi center.
Most people understand that anemia is caused by iron deficiency in the bloodstream, but in reality anemia is characterized by deficiency in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells diminishing the ability of the blood to transport oxygen to our cells and to remove carbon dioxide.
Antioxidant plays an important role in the influences of the pharmacologic induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) for treatment of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease through expression in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow(1).
Recent studies suggested that chronic consumption of the papaya(2) may be beneficiary to reduce symptoms and treatment for patients with anemia such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease.
Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongs to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries. Vitamin C found abundantly in papaya out of all fruits, according to the Chinese Academy of Medical Science, improved the levels of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) through the indication of the oxygen binding curves and the molecular weights(2).
In patients with sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and are associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, C. papaya seed oil significantly increased HbSSM and HbSSF human sickle cell blood peroxidase activity and hemoglobin concentration significantly, through exhibited particular antisickling properties and reduced oxidative stress in sickle cell patient(3).
Also in patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia due to defects and mutations in the beta-globin gene, fermented papaya preparation (FPP) improve the status of anemia through increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and decreased free radicals generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) in beta-thal, major and intermedia, (in Israel) and E-beta-thal patients(4).Dr. Olalla-Saad ST said, "... reduction of oxidative status in red blood cells of patients with β- and E-β-thalassemia (β-thal) treated with fermented papaya preparation"(5) of that reducing the severity of the symptoms of anemia(6).
In fact, on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples, long term consumption of tropical fruit extract, Carica papaya produced significant less numbers of sickle cells, the Covenant University study suggested(7).
People who are at increased risk of anemia (β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease) due to family history, genetic mutation .....should drink at least 2 serving daily and people with chronic anemia (β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease) should drink the juices as much as they can, depending to digestive toleration.
Change of life style and diet pattern are also recommended.
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(1) Induction of human fetal hemoglobin via the NRF2 antioxidant response signaling pathway by Macari ER1, Lowrey CH.(PubMed)
(2) Antioxidant effects of vitamin C on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers derived from human cord blood by Chen G1, Duan Y1, Liu J1, Wang H1, Yang C1,2.(PubMed)
(3) Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease by Afolabi IS1, Osikoya IO, Fajimi OD, Usoro PI, Ogunleye DO, Bisi-Adeniyi T, Adeyemi AO, Adekeye BT.(PubMed)
(4) Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation.
Fibach E1, Tan ES, Jamuar S, Ng I, Amer J, Rachmilewitz EA.(PubMed)
(5) Fermented papaya preparation for β-thalassemia? by Olalla-Saad ST1.(PubMed)
(6) Fermented papaya preparation as redox regulator in blood cells of beta-thalassemic mice and patients by Amer J1, Goldfarb A, Rachmilewitz EA, Fibach E.(PubMed)
(7) Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit® by Iweala EE1, Uhegbu FO, Ogu GN.(PubMed)