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Sunday, May 15, 2016

All About #CurableVitamin A and Anemia in Pregnancy

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Intake of dietary vitamin A may reduce risk of maternal anemia during pregnancy in the third world, the joint study led by the Addis Ababa University insisted. According to the report, women who are in the inadequate group of dietary vitamin A had a higher risk of anemia(1). 
Fernando E. Viteri, M.D., ScD., FACN, Professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, said, "The high risk of women of fertile age and pregnant women for incurring negative balance and iron deficiency is due to their increased iron needs because of menstruation and the substantial iron demands of pregnancy" and "The risk of complications during birth, including fetal mortality, is higher among stunted populations who also exhibit poor pelvic development"(2).

Vitamin A is a general term of Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin best known for its functions for vision health and antioxidant scavenger and essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. 
Recommended intakes of vitamin A, according to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) is 600 µg daily as extremely high doses (>9000 mg) can be toxicity as causes of dry, scaly skin, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, bone and joint pains, headaches, etc. As Improvement of vitamin A status has generally been shown to reduce anemia(5).

Anemia is defined as a condition of deficiency of hemoglobin, leading not enough red blood cells in the body. The functions of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lung to the body' s cells.

There is an associated of iron deficiency and low levels of vitamin A, as both iron and vitamin A deficiencies were classified to the independent risk factors for anemia, according to Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health(6).

In fact, anemia in pregnancy, a very common in the underdeveloped countries. as a result of iron deficiency and acute blood loss has shown to inflict and induce adverse maternal-fetal consequences(3).
In order to reduced risk of risk factor for preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight, and possibly for inferior neonatal health(7), Dr. Sifakis S and Dr. Pharmakides G. suggested that an Hb level of 11 gr/dl in the late first trimester and also of 10 gr/dl in the second and third trimesters are suggested as lower limits for Hb concentration"(4).

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(1) Dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of maternal anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in a prospective cohort study in rural Ethiopia by Zerfu TA1, Umeta M2, Baye K3.(PubMed)
(2) The Consequences of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia in Pregnancy on Maternal Health, the Foetus and the Infantby Fernando E. Viteri, M.D., ScD., FACN, Professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California at Berkeley.
(3) ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 95: anemia in pregnancy by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.(PubMed)
(4) Anemia in pregnancy by Sifakis S1, Pharmakides G.(PubMed)
(5) The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis by Semba RD1, Bloem MW.(PubMed)
(6) Relationship of vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency, and inflammation to anemia among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands by Gamble MV1, Palafox NA, Dancheck B, Ricks MO, Briand K, Semba RD.(PubMed)
(7) Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome1,2,3 by Lindsay H Allen(American Society for Clinical Nutrition)

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