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Thursday, August 17, 2017

All About Vitamins: Vitamin B2 Reduced Risk outflow tract defects (OTD) and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in New Born

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Vitamin B2 also known as Riboflavin, is a water-soluble, yellow-orange organic compound found abundantly in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, green vegetables, etc. The vitamin is essential for normal cellular growth and function and best known for converting energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism and its antioxidant effects in oxidation-reduction reactions.

Low levels of vitamin B2 during pregnancy may be associated to reproductive outcomes and heart development in new born, a renowned institute study suggested.

According to the McGill University pregnant women with low dietary choline and riboflavin daily are associated to increased new born complications and abnormal heart development.

In a study with female Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice fed a control diet (CD), a choline-deficient diet (ChDD), or a riboflavin-deficient diet (RbDD) and then mated with male Mthfr(+/-) mice, RbDD fed mice with diet of riboflavin-deficient diet (RbDD, expressed a higher percentage of delayed embryos and smaller embryos in compared control.

Heart defects,in terms of all ventricular septal defects was also found more in embryos from the ChDD- and RbDD than from the CD- fed females.

Dr. Chan J, the lead author said, " Low dietary choline and riboflavin affects embryonic growth and cardiac development in mice. Adequate choline and riboflavin may also play a role in the prevention of these pregnancy complications in women".

Furthermore, in the study of maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide against risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects, researchers found that riboflavin and nicotinamide are co-enzymes in lipid metabolism in enhancing the embryonic development.

In a case-control family study conducted in 276 mothers of a child with a CHD comprising of 190 outflow tract defects (OTD) and 86 non-outflow tract defects (non-OTD) and 324 control mothers of a non-malformed child, mothers filled out general and food frequency questionnaires at 16 months after the index-pregnancy indicated dietary intakes of riboflavin and nicotinamide were lower in mothers of a child with an OTD than in controls

In fact, low dietary intakes of both riboflavin (<1.20 mg/d) and nicotinamide (<13.5 mg/d) increased more than two-fold the risk of a child with an OTD, particular pregnant women with maternal diet high in saturated fats and low in riboflavin and nicotinamide.

Taking together, women, who reduced in take of saturated fat and increased intake of riboflavin and nicotinamide during pregnancy may have a better outcome in reduced risk of new born with outflow tract defects (OTD) and congenital heart defects (CHDs).


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Sources
(1) Low dietary choline and low dietary riboflavin during pregnancy influence reproductive outcomes and heart development in mice by Chan J1, Deng L, Mikael LG, Yan J, Pickell L, Wu Q, Caudill MA, Rozen R.(PubMed)
(2) Maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide and the risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects by Smedts HP1, Rakhshandehroo M, Verkleij-Hagoort AC, de Vries JH, Ottenkamp J, Steegers EA, Steegers-Theunissen RP.(PubMed)

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