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Monday, July 31, 2017

All About Vitamins: The Effects of Vitamin B2 In Reduced Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Vitamin B1 is one of the members of the vitamin B complex, it is also known as thiamin or thiamine. It's most common form is a colorless chemical compound with the formula C12H17N4OS. It was discovered in 1910 by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan. It is a water soluble vitamin, therefore it can be stored in the body and is required to be taken regularly.

Levels of Riboflavin may be associated to risk in developed  congenital heart defects in offspring, a recent study suggested.

In a total of 276 mothers of a child with a CHD in case-control family study, comprising of 190 outflow tract defects (OTD) and 86 non-outflow tract defects (non-OTD) and 324 control mothers of a non-malformed child, in mothers filled out general and food frequency questionnaires at 16 months after the index-pregnancy, maternal diet high in saturated fats and low in riboflavin and nicotinamide seems to contribute to CHD risk, in particular OTDs.

The study also found that mother who had a low dietary intakes of both riboflavin (<1.20 mg/d) and nicotinamide (<13.5 mg/d) expressed the increased more than two-fold the risk of a child with an OTD,

Dr. Smedts HP, the lead author said," mothers of a child with OTD, had higher dietary intakes of saturated fat, 30.9 vs. 29.8 g/d; P < 0.05. Dietary intakes of riboflavin and nicotinamide were lower in mothers of a child with an OTD than in controls (1.32 vs. 1.41 mg/d; P < 0.05 and 14.6 vs. 15.1 mg/d; P < 0.05, respectively)".

Although vitamin B2 plays an important role in reduced risk in developed congenital heart defects, other research suggested that diet low in vitamin B12 and imbalance in the maternal intake of proteins and low folate intake may also associate with an increased risk of a child with a CHD, according to the study of 192 mothers of a child with a CHD and 216 mothers of a healthy child. filling out food frequency questionnaires covering the current dietary intake.

Other study suggested that maternal diet high in saturated fats and low in riboflavin and nicotinamide seems to contribute to CHD risk, in particular OTDs.

Therefore, vitamin B2, may be associated to reduce risk of congenital heart defects, other nutrients factors should also be taken into account as well.


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Sources
(1) Maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide and the risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects by Smedts HP1, Rakhshandehroo M, Verkleij-Hagoort AC, de Vries JH, Ottenkamp J, Steegers EA, Steegers-Theunissen RP.(PubMed)
(2) Dietary intake of B-vitamins in mothers born a child with a congenital heart defect by Verkleij-Hagoort AC1, de Vries JH, Ursem NT, de Jonge R, Hop WC, Steegers-Theunissen RP.(PubMed)
(3) Maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide and the risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects by Smedts HP1, Rakhshandehroo M, Verkleij-Hagoort AC, de Vries JH, Ottenkamp J, Steegers EA, Steegers-Theunissen RP.(PubMed)

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